Axa Mansard Insurance Plc (MANSAR.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Insurance sector has released it’s 2017 annual report.For more information about Axa Mansard Insurance Plc (MANSAR.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Axa Mansard Insurance Plc (MANSAR.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Axa Mansard Insurance Plc (MANSAR.ng) 2017 annual report.Company ProfileAXA Mansard Insurance Plc is an insurance and asset management company in Nigeria. The company offers solution products for motor, life, travel, education and commercial insurance as well as financial advisory services, portfolio and risk management services and investment consulting services. AXA Mansard Insurance Plc’s head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. AXA Mansard Insurance Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
On the ball: the World Cup has seen cyber criminals at work but there are ways to dodge them (Pic: Getty) Stuart Fuller, Director of Commercial Operations at NetNames, says: “Fraudsters are deploying increasingly sophisticated tactics, taking advantage of SEO, affiliate networks and varying international jurisdictions. The onus falls to big brands, which are associated with the tournament, to do as much as possible to protect their customers from phony websites and apps.“Brands need the ability to monitor the internet for infringements in real time so they can minimise the threat to fans. Given the global nature of the internet, and the Rugby World Cup, it’s crucial that brands take into account the diverse attitudes to intellectual property in different countries so they can follow the correct legal procedures and get fraudulent websites or listings quickly taken down.” 1. Fraudulent ticketsDemand for World Cup tickets since the application phase opened last year has been huge, with the initial ballot stage massively oversubscribed for many games. Whilst a further 100,000 tickets were released in late May on a first-come, first-serve basis, the most popular games are sold out.Despite the organising committee issuing warning messages on the official ticketing website about the dangers of buying through unauthorised third parties, a simple search for the term ‘Rugby World Cup tickets’ on Google provides thousands of results. Among these search results, research uncovered:Ticket listings on sites that don’t appear to be authorised to sell the tickets, with prices ranging from £657 for the England-Australia pool game, to £10,000 for the final on 31 October.Even games that appear in low demand on the official ticketing website are being sold on websites for nearly £400 – almost ten times as much as face value.Some organisations with no official link to World Rugby or the organising committee state that they can “provide authentic tickets for all games” or “guarantee best tickets”.Gold in your fingers: Demand for the major matches far outstrips supply – attracting ticket fraudsters2. Fake stripAs with any sports tournament, you can expect an increase in sales of replica kit in the run up to the World Cup. A limited-edition England home World Cup jersey shirt costs £120 in the official RWC online shop, with other adult options priced at £60-70.However, a search on some overseas online marketplaces reveals that the shirts are for sale for just £7, with quantities on offer in excess of 20 units at a time. At that price and in that quantity you would have to question the authenticity of the product – if it actually arrives at all.3. Unofficial appsThis World Cup will see more fans access information via their smartphone than ever before. World Rugby Ltd has an official app that is free for users, but a simple search on some of the major app stores reveals a couple of unofficial apps, that could be dangerous for fans not wary of scams. This number is set to rise as the tournament gets closer.During recent major sports events, some unofficial apps, that have featured official colours and logos, appeared to illegally stream matches live. Users need to be cautious as rogue mobile apps are capable of infecting devices with viruses and can also access personal data.One app you can trust is the one from Rugby World. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS 4. Unauthorised merchandiseThe RWC organising committee started launching official merchandise last year, setting up shops in major tourist centres such as Oxford Street and Covent Garden in London and the St David’s Centre in Cardiff. In addition, the official online store offers a full range of products.However, websites are already offering counterfeit merchandise, trying to pass it off as official – one online marketplace is selling England polo shirts, which retail for £30 on the official website, for around £6. Every official product has a Rugby World Cup 2015 hologram on it, although some online listings may use misleading pictures displaying the hologram. If in doubt, report an item to the Rugby World Cup team.Shirt off your back: merchandise has long been a soft target for the con men (Pic: Getty Images)5. Betting sitesOne of the most popular traditions of any major sports event such as the World Cup is betting, whether on the winning team, top try-scorer or individual match outcomes. Most fans will probably be using the mainstream betting companies to place their bets, which offer a safe, secure environment for gamblers.But some fans may be lured by other alternatives that offer odds on games that seem too good to be true. In most instances, these deals are too good to be true and winning bets may never be settled. Before you hand over any money, it’s worth doing some simple research online about the reputation of the website or company. See RW’s guide to spread betting.Brand responsibility NetNames, the leading online brand protection company, reports on the top five online rip-offs to avoid ahead of and during the World Cup…
Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Advocacy Peace & Justice, Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Tags Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Submit an Event Listing Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Submit a Press Release Rector Albany, NY Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Submit a Job Listing Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Rector Collierville, TN Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Curate Diocese of Nebraska Rector Shreveport, LA Press Release Service The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Youth Minister Lorton, VA Racial Justice & Reconciliation This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Rector Pittsburgh, PA Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector Knoxville, TN Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Western North Carolina: A statement from the bishop in solidarity with Charlottesville Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Rector Belleville, IL Rector Smithfield, NC Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Rector Hopkinsville, KY Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Associate Rector Columbus, GA Rector Tampa, FL Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Rector Martinsville, VA Featured Events Charlottesville, Rector Washington, DC An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Featured Jobs & Calls Director of Music Morristown, NJ Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK [Episcopal Diocese of Western North Carolina] Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ,As followers of Jesus, we boldly proclaim that he is the perfect manifestation and fulfillment of the promises echoed in the 85th Psalm:Mercy and truth have met together;righteousness and peace have kissed each otherBy word and action, Jesus taught his disciples that hatred, bigotry, racism and violence is anathema to the Kingdom of God. Our Lord modeled peace and unity by naming the evil voices of discord, division and oppression. Indeed, there is no other way to be faithful servants of God.Like many of you, I’ve been watching with uneasiness as extremist groups have gathered in Charlottesvile, Virginia. Today, we saw these groups violently clash with counter-protestors, and the governor of Viriginia has declared a state of emergency.I want to be clear that as Jesus’ disciples, we are commanded to not only pray for peace but to also be the embodiment of God’s love and justice. As Christians, we must speak out against both the bigotry and hatred espoused by these extremists as well as the violence that has occurred because of their actions.I invite all Episcopalians of the Diocese of Western North Carolina to join me in prayer for those who were injured or died in the violent outbreaks in Charlottesville. Pray for the safety of all who live in that community and pray for those charged with keeping the peace. Tomorrow, as you gather in your churches, I encourage you to remember our Baptismal Covenant — may we persevere in resisting evil, hatred, violence and prejudice in any form, and may we respect the dignity of every human being, striving for peace and justice in all things.Finally, I also ask everyone to join me in taking measurable steps to build bridges in our communities and be agents of our Lord’s mercy, grace, truth and love. There is great strength in the unity of our faith. Together, we will stand as one body holding fast to the teachings of Christ.Faithfully,The Rt. Rev. José A. McLoughlinVII Bishop of Western North Carolina Posted Aug 14, 2017 Rector Bath, NC
Rector Shreveport, LA Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Curate Diocese of Nebraska Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Rector Smithfield, NC Youth Minister Lorton, VA Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Submit a Job Listing Presiding Bishop Michael Curry Rector Hopkinsville, KY The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group By Egan MillardPosted Oct 12, 2020 Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Tags National Cathedral to host interfaith prayer service on Nov. 1 Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Featured Jobs & Calls Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Rector Martinsville, VA Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Rector Bath, NC Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Press Release Service Rector Albany, NY Associate Rector Columbus, GA Director of Music Morristown, NJ In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Rector Belleville, IL Rector Tampa, FL Rector Knoxville, TN Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Faith & Politics, This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Submit a Press Release Featured Events An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Rector Washington, DC Submit an Event Listing Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Rector Collierville, TN Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Washington National Cathedral. Courtesy photo[Episcopal News Service] As the United States struggles through a time of turbulence and tension, Washington National Cathedral will host a national interfaith prayer service on Sunday, Nov. 1 – two days before Election Day – featuring Presiding Bishop Michael Curry and other spiritual leaders. The service, titled “Holding Onto Hope: A national service for healing and wholeness,” will be livestreamed on The Episcopal Church’s Facebook page in English and Spanish from 4 to 5:30 p.m. Eastern time.“In the midst of pandemic, racial reckoning and a historic election, the livestreamed service will gather Americans for prayer, song, lament, hope and a call to love God and neighbor,” said the Rev. Stephanie Spellers, canon to the presiding bishop for evangelism, reconciliation and stewardship of creation.Curry will offer “wisdom and encouragement,” along with the Rev. James Martin, a Jesuit priest, and Valarie Kaur, a Sikh filmmaker and speaker. Curry will also preach that same day at the cathedral’s All Saints’ Day Eucharist at 11 a.m.In statements to Episcopal News Service, Curry and the Very Rev. Randy Hollerith, dean of the cathedral, spoke of the renewed importance of the cathedral as a space for Americans to unite in the presence of God, even if they are physically separated. Washington Bishop Mariann Budde will lead the service along with Hollerith and Spellers.“Washington National Cathedral, for our nation, has been a place to gather for prayer: at the death of presidents, after terrible tragedies like 9/11, and in moments of joy and hope for our nation and our world,” Curry told Episcopal News Service. “As the people of the United States cast their votes for the office of president and many other offices throughout the land, we gather to pray to the God who is the Creator of us all. We pray, in a sense, on our knees before our God that we might learn to stand holding each other’s hands as the children of God.”Hollerith emphasized that the service is intended to foster a spirit of healing and unity and is nonpartisan.“Our country is facing unprecedented challenges, no matter where you live or who you vote for,” Hollerith said. “This cathedral was built to bring the country together at moments of national significance, and what a significant moment this is. … We are not praying for one side to win, or for the other side to lose. We are praying that God will bring healing to our relationships, healing to this pandemic, and healing to our weary hearts.”The service will be comprised of three “movements” focusing on reckoning, lament and hope, said Jerusalem Greer, The Episcopal Church’s staff officer for evangelism, that will help Americans process the crises facing the nation, including COVID-19, racism, violence and climate change, offering a “light at the end of the tunnel.”Prayers of lament will be offered by front-line responders like nurses, teachers and grocery store workers. Prayers for the nation will come from spiritual leaders including Presiding Bishop Elizabeth Eaton of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Rabbi Shoshanah Conover, and Eboo Patel, who served on President Barack Obama’s inaugural Faith Council. Music will be offered by the National Cathedral and the Coro de la Catedral of Christ Church Cathedral in Indianapolis, Indiana.The service will also coincide with the launch of a live prayer hotline, developed in partnership with the church innovation lab TryTank, which will continue through Election Day. Trained chaplains will be available to pray with callers in English or Spanish about anything that’s on their minds.– Egan Millard is an assistant editor and reporter for Episcopal News Service. He can be reached at [email protected] Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY
Mama Mia By Richard G. Snyder, Mississippi State UniversityWhen I answer my office phone as an extension vegetable specialist, from time to time it’s someone asking how they can get recognition for growing a huge tomato, possibly the biggest one ever. When I ask how big a tomato we’re talking about, and the caller says 2 or 2.5 pounds, I have to hold back my laughter and gently explain that that is nowhere even close to a record.So just how big is big? Growers in various states have set various records – New Jersey was home to a 6-pound, 2.5-ounce tomato, Oklahoma has boasted a 7-pound, 12-ounce one and Minnesota weighed in at 8 pounds, 6 ounces. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Dan Sutherland of Walla Walla, Washington is the current tomato king, having produced a tomato tipping the scale at 8 pounds, 9 ounces in 2016.If you take that as a challenge to your own tomato-growing prowess, read on for tips on how to nurture a massive tomato. The secrets are really nothing too obscure. What’s important is checking off as many boxes as possible to optimize the fruit size. Each step is attainable for the home gardener, but missing out on certain ones will limit your results.Dan MacCoy shows off his 8.41-pound tomato in 2014.Pick a proven pedigreeAre some varieties better for fruit size? Absolutely. The best way to determine which ones to use is to look at previous winners. Genes are important.A cherry, grape or plum tomato plant isn’t going to yield a winner. Some varieties have a genetic potential to produce larger fruit than others, including Beefsteak, Delicious, Big Beef, Big Rainbow, Dinner Plate, Giant Belgium, Big Pink, German Johnson, T & T Monster, Braggar and Brandywine, among others. All of these big boys are in the category of beefsteak tomato – they have smaller seed cavities than other varieties, and so proportionally more flesh than juice and seeds.Since it would be hard to find plants of most of these at your local garden center, you will likely have to order seeds from seed catalogs and start your own plants.There’s no guarantee that a plant of one of these varieties will be a winner. Although the potential for large size is in the genes, it will not be achieved unless the environmental conditions are optimized. And by that, I mean perfect.Super soilOne of the most important tips is to start with great soil. All plants, not just tomatoes, will do much better if planted in properly prepared soil. The soil should be well-drained, high in organic matter and fertile.Tomatoes thrive on animal manures. So if you have access to some composted (not fresh) manure, you might place some in the bottom of the hole and then cover it up before transplanting your seedling. This is a tried and true method for lots of old-time tomato growers.A place in the sunLike most vegetables, tomatoes need full sun. Anything less will decrease maximum photosynthesis, thereby limiting growth of foliage and fruit. A tomato plant needs lots of leaves to catch as much sun as possible, manufacture sugars and send those sugars to the developing fruit. They also don’t mind the heat (up to a point), so long as there is plenty of water in the root zone to keep them from drying out.When the temperature gets into the mid-90s or above, that’s when trouble can occur. Tomato pollen is sterilized at 94 degrees Fahrenheit, so even if pollination occurs and pollen makes it from the male to the female parts of the flower, there won’t be much fertilization since pollen has been killed. So higher temperatures limit fruit set: the transformation of flower into fruit. Fruit quality and size will also suffer at a very high temperature.Crowding isn’t your friend.Slavica Stajic/Shutterstock.comSpace to spread outTomatoes need plenty of room to grow. Commercially, most growers use a two-foot spacing within rows. If you want really large fruit, give them even more room. One of the most common errors by novice gardeners is planting tomato plants too close together. If you are just going for size, you need only a few good, healthy plants, with plenty of space around them.Training plants to grow off the ground is a good idea to protect the quality of the fruit. Caging and staking are both fine. Just be sure to tie them frequently enough to support the plants. If you choose cages, you will need a mesh that is big enough to get your hand in and to get that enormous tomato back out.Hydrated and well-fedTomato plants need plenty of water, especially in hot weather, but will suffer if the ground stays saturated. As a rule of thumb, an inch and a half of water per week, from hose or from rain, is about right. The soil must be able to drain this water within a reasonably short time.Be sure to water the plants thoroughly right after transplanting. After plants are established, always water deeply, once or twice per week, rather than giving them a light sprinkle every day; shallow watering leads to shallow roots. A good, thick mulch will help hold moisture in the soil around plants and also keeps the weeds down.As for fertilizer, tomatoes need regular doses. Small, weekly amounts are better than large pre-plant amounts and one or two side-dressings. Liquid fertilizer is more quickly available to plants than granular forms. Some people like to use fish emulsion or “manure tea,” but any complete garden fertilizer will work.Don’t let your plant squander its resources.Alexander Sobol/Shutterstock.comFocus on one flowerOne other tip, and this is important. Remove the first flower cluster or two so that the plant will produce more leaves before you allow it to set tomatoes.Then, when the plant is big enough to set fruit, don’t let all of the fruit mature. Remove all but one fruit per cluster. Usually the first fruit to set on a cluster will be the largest, so snip off all of the other flowers or small fruit on that cluster. And don’t let too many clusters stay on the plant either.Prepare for prize-winningYou don’t need to break a world record to win a local contest.AP Photo/Lisa PooleOnce you’ve got your jumbo beauty, what about that big money? Start by looking for local, county or state contests. Ask your State Department of Agriculture or County Extension Agent.Good luck and remember to think big. The record continues to be broken every so often, which tells you that the upper limit has still not been found.And if you just don’t have much luck growing gargantuan tomatoes, console yourself with the knowledge that while these techniques maximize for size, they do not maximize flavor. When plants get too much water, for example, the fruit can be bland. Your more average-sized tomatoes may be more delicious at the table.Richard G. Snyder, Professor of Horticulture & Extension Vegetable Specialist, Mississippi State University. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. TAGSThe ConversationTomato Previous articleAdventHealth brings CART T-cell therapy to Central Florida lymphoma patientsNext articleVoter rights group rallies to end limbo in battleground Florida Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Mama Mia Reply Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 2 COMMENTS That top photo of the tomato shown above is just like some that Maters and Taters have right now for sale at only 50 cents a pound! They are BIG! I have good luck growing spring tomatoes but not fall tomatoes. October 13, 2019 at 3:53 pm The Anatomy of Fear Reply Please enter your comment! You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Please enter your name here October 13, 2019 at 3:54 pm Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate
18 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Individual giving Research / statistics The Wiltshire Wildlife Trust’s campaign to help it buy Lower Moor Farm generated over £1.4 million, a record for the environmental charity. It needed to raise at least £805,000 to buy the 96-acre area.The Trust’s 17,000 members and other supporters donated over £113,000 to the fundraising appeal for the farm.In addition the charity received £1.2 million in grant aid from the Heritage Lottery Fund, Aggregates Levy, together with donations from the Hills Group and Grantscape, for purchase and development of the site. Advertisement Wildlife trust raises £1.4 million to buy nature reserve Howard Lake | 13 November 2005 | News About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Lenin in 1923, shortly before his death.Karl Marx was not a utopian — that is, he did not pull out of his head the concept of what an ideal society would look like.Rather, he analyzed capitalism, as well as earlier forms of class and pre-class societies, to understand what gives rise to new social forms and the passing away of older ones.Why did private property and the development of classes take over from the early, communal form of human society, which had existed around the globe for tens of thousands of years?How is it that capitalist development, which has led to a spectacular increase in productivity in pursuit of profits for the ruling class, has also laid the material basis for realizing socialism? By abolishing private ownership of the means of production, socialism is the only system that can carry out plans to use the wealth created by the workers to benefit everyone.Marx also studied revolutions as the necessary catalyst to make such a transformation possible. He wrote that people “make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.” (The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte)What happened in Russia in 1917, and later in all the nations under the heel of the vast czarist empire, confirmed this important concept of Marx. The revolution came because of unbearable poverty and repression, but it came to the weakest of the capitalist countries, not the most advanced. While the Russian revolutionaries had counted on the revolution spreading in Europe because of the desperate conditions created by World War I, that didn’t happen. There were soldiers’ and workers’ rebellions in several European countries, but they were crushed, leaving the Bolshevik Revolution surrounded by stronger capitalist powers bent on its destruction.Lenin on world revolutionV.I. Lenin, the great revolutionary thinker and fighter, recognized the terrible dangers facing the besieged Bolshevik Revolution. In a resolution for the 7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party on March 6, 1918, he wrote: “The Congress considers the only reliable guarantee of consolidation of the socialist revolution that has been victorious in Russia to be its conversion into a world working-class revolution.”Six weeks later, in a speech to the Moscow Soviet on April 23, he said: “We are a revolutionary working-class contingent that has advanced to the forefront, not because we are better than other workers, not because the Russian proletariat is superior to the working class of other countries, but solely because we were one of the most backward countries in the world. We shall achieve final victory only when we succeed at last in conclusively smashing international imperialism which relies on the tremendous strength of its equipment and discipline.“But we shall achieve victory only together with all the workers of other countries of the whole world. … Our backwardness has put us in the forefront, and we shall perish unless we are capable of holding out until we receive powerful support from workers who have risen in revolt in other countries.”The Bolshevik Revolution survived for another 74 years, a testament to the enormous potential of a workers’ state, even one born out of underdevelopment and devastating imperialist war. But from the beginning it had to make concessions in order to exist.Need for skilled personnelTake the question of personnel to run the new society. In the civil war and invasion by 14 imperialist countries that followed the actual seizure of power by the Bolsheviks, the most advanced workers committed to the revolution rushed to the battle. Many never came back. They died of war wounds, epidemics and even famine. Lost were the most dedicated communists with skills, both political and practical, desperately needed to get production going again and also to win over the masses to enlightened views on women’s rights, the rights of oppressed nationalities, how to collectivize agriculture, how to take over and run the factories and other workplaces under new worker management, etc.Sam Marcy, the founder and theoretical leader of Workers World Party, wrote on this in a pamphlet called “Soviet Socialism: Utopian or Scientific?” The Bolsheviks could not make history out of their own materials, he said, referring to Marx, but had to make do with the conditions that prevailed in Russia.“First and foremost among these conditions,” wrote Marcy, “was that the workers’ state in the USSR only succeeded because of its alliance with the much more numerous peasantry. The alliance was correct, principled and indispensable in the overthrow of czarism. But it presented an enormous problem. The proletariat as a class is supremely interested in the socialization of property and production, which the bourgeoisie has in fact already started. But the peasants are concerned with private property, their private plots. The alliance showed its difficulties right from the start of the revolution. How to keep the loyalty of the peasants?”Wolves in sheep’s clothing“This led to the next problem. It was not a pure workers’ state in the sense that the proletariat was a majority of the population or was able to organize a new social system on its own. The truth of the matter, as Lenin, Trotsky, Bukharin and Stalin all saw and agreed, is that it was necessary to rely to a large extent on the old czarist administrative apparatus — a bitter pill to swallow. This was true even in the military sphere. Former czarist officers were recruited, even though they had to be guarded by communist civilian cadre, the commissars. …“Relying upon elements of the old state apparatus in all fields of life held not only obvious dangers but a hidden one: These elements knew how to show eagerness and servility to the state, as in czarist times. The Communist Party, which they had previously scorned and feared — not to speak of imprisoned and banished — now could become a source of privilege if they showed support for the government and party.“The question before the Bolsheviks was how to deal with these layers — the old bureaucracy, the officialdom, remnants of the old educated classes — who now sensing the victory of the revolution tried to find an easy entrance into it.”How to feed the people? During the civil war the Bolsheviks had to requisition grain from the peasants to avert an even greater famine. In 1921, shortly after the counterrevolution was finally defeated, Lenin advocated a temporary return to market relations in agriculture — the New Economic Policy — in order to stimulate food production, which had fallen to a disastrous low. It was another necessary step backward, and one that led some rich peasants, known as kulaks, to become richer while the majority remained poor.Lenin’s death in 1924 was a terrible blow to the party and the revolution. As the acknowledged leader, he had participated in vigorous debate and discussion at every step along the way, usually, but not always, winning over the rest of the party leadership to his point of view.Without Lenin, how to collectivize agriculture became a bone of contention in the party. To win over the poorer peasants and try to neutralize the kulaks, the government needed to supply the collectives with material support. The lives of the peasants would be vastly improved if the collectives could offer them electrification, education and less back-breaking agricultural work by providing at least horses and, even better, tractors and mechanized harvesters.The 15th Congress of the Communist Party in 1927 resolved to proceed with collectivization at a gradual pace and let the peasants join the collectives voluntarily. Soviet industry was still only on the verge of being rationalized by the first five-year plan, which began in 1928. It was not yet producing the machinery needed to run many large-scale collectives.But by the end of 1929, peasants were being forced to join the collectives, many of which had not yet been supplied with either horses or farm machinery. This led to resistance on their part, the slaughter of livestock and destruction of farm equipment, with many peasants abandoning the collectives. Another famine followed in the countryside in 1932-33.Women and gay rights set backOther setbacks occurred in this period. Legal breakthroughs won soon after the revolution regarding the rights of women and gay men were partially rolled back.The Soviet Union had been the first country in the world to remove restrictions on divorce and abortion, as well as same-sex love. But Soviet law was changed in 1936 and again in 1944 to put restrictions on divorce in order to “strengthen the family.” A decree of July 8, 1944, also imposed a fee of at least 100 rubles to obtain a divorce. While the rationale given was concern over the fate of children, the result was to put wives more firmly under the control of their husbands.In 1936, abortions, which had been made free on demand in 1920, were banned except in cases involving danger to the mother’s health. It became a crime for anyone to provide an abortion other than authorized doctors.All restrictions on same-sex love had been removed just months after the 1917 revolution. But on March 7, 1934, a decree was issued criminalizing same-sex love between men and setting a punishment of up to five years of hard labor in prison.Of course, we cannot forget that in even the most advanced capitalist countries, similar and often much more repressive laws were the norm at that time. Where they have been changed since then, it is because of the strength of the women’s and LGBTQ movements and not the enlightened goodwill of the capitalist ruling class.Soviet Union survived and inspiredThese concessions to social conservatism, serious as they were, did not undo the revolution or restore the old ruling classes. In fact, they came at a time when the Soviet Union was pulling ahead in industrial production after the initiation of its first five-year plan. The capitalist world, on the other hand, was in the depths of the Great Depression, a crisis caused by the inner contradictions of the system itself.To millions of workers and oppressed peoples around the world, the Soviet Union remained a beacon of hope. Great communist parties sprung up in both the imperialist countries and the colonies their rulers exploited. Among the latter, the parties in China, Korea and Vietnam eventually managed to carry out socialist revolutions based on both national liberation from imperialism and the struggle of the workers and peasants against class oppression and exploitation.Even the outbreak of another disastrous world war failed to undo the 1917 Revolution. In June 1941, the Nazi regime launched Operation Barbarossa, sending 4 million German troops to invade the USSR along an 1,800-mile front. It was then, and continues to be, the largest invasion the world has ever seen.The Germans captured 5 million Red Army troops in the war that followed. A majority of these POWs never returned alive. The Nazis deliberately starved and killed 3.3 million prisoners, as well as a huge number of civilians, through their “Hunger Plan,” intended to replace the Slavic peoples with German settlers. Nazi death squads and gassing operations also murdered over a million Soviet Jews.But the enormous heroism of the Soviet people in defending the gains of their revolution won the day. The war in Europe ended with soldiers of the Red Army planting the hammer-and-sickle flag on the roof of the Reichstag in Berlin.Next: Revolution in the belly of the beast? 100th anniversary of Bolshevik RevolutionPart 1: From Marx’s view of social evolution to Lenin’s ‘Imperialism’Part 2: Social gains in early years of Soviet powerPart 3: ‘Whose state? Our state’ – meaning all nationalitiesPart 4: External and internal problems, strengths and setbacksPart 5: To the 0.001 percent: You are cheering too soonFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
News UpdatesDelhi HC Frames Rules On Conducting Proceedings Through Video Conferencing [Read Rules] Karan Tripathi1 Jun 2020 6:23 AMShare This – xWhile exercising its powers under Articles 225 and 227 of the Constitution, the Delhi High Court has published the new Video Conferencing Rules to consolidate, unify and streamline the procedure relating to the use of video conferencing for courts. Published on June 01, these rules are officially called ‘High Court of Delhi Rules for Video Conferencing for Courts 2020’, and will be applicable…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginWhile exercising its powers under Articles 225 and 227 of the Constitution, the Delhi High Court has published the new Video Conferencing Rules to consolidate, unify and streamline the procedure relating to the use of video conferencing for courts. Published on June 01, these rules are officially called ‘High Court of Delhi Rules for Video Conferencing for Courts 2020’, and will be applicable in all those courts which the High Court in due course will notify. At the outset, the Rules declare that all proceedings conducted by a Court via video conferencing shall be judicial proceedings and all the courtesies and protocols applicable to a physical Court shall apply to these virtual proceedings. All relevant statutory provisions applicable to judicial proceedings including provisions of the CPC, CrPC, Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (Evidence Act), and Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act), shall apply to proceedings conducted by video conferencing, and the court shall be adopting such technological advances as may become available from time to time. A person who is required to join the proceedings through VC has to show his government recognised identity proof through email. Unauthorised recording of proceedings by any entity is prohibited. The Rules stipulate the presence of a Coordinator both at the Court Point (courtroom) and Remote Point (place where any person or persons are required to be present or appear through a video link) to ensure proper and seamless carrying out of recording of evidence and proceedings through VC. These Coordinators also have to ensure that lawyers are ready 30 minutes prior to the scheduled time and that person being examined is not prompted, tutored, coaxed, induced or coerced in any manner by any person and that the person being examined does not refer to any document, script or device without the permission of the concerned Court during the examination. ‘On the completion of video conferencing, if a Remote User believes that she/he were prejudiced due to poor video and/or audio quality, the Remote User shall immediately inform the Coordinator at the Court Point, who shall, in turn, communicate this information to the Court without any delay. The Court shall consider the grievance and if it finds substance in the grievance may declare the hearing to be incomplete and the parties may be asked to reconnect or make a physical appearance in Court.’, the Rules state. Apart from laying down general procedure, the Rules also lay down guidelines for judicial remand, the framing of charge, the examination of accused and Proceedings under Section 164 of the CrPC. The cost of proceedings and recording of evidence through VC shall be borne by the party requesting for the same in civil cases, and in criminal cases, the onus of costs will be decided by the court. The Rules further make it clear that to observe the requirement of an open Court proceeding, members of the public will be allowed to view Court hearings conducted through video conferencing, except proceedings ordered for reasons recorded in writing to be conducted in-camera. The Court shall endeavour to make available sufficient links (consistent with available bandwidth) for accessing the proceedings. In order to ensure proper proceedings, the court shall satisfy itself that the Advocate, Required Person or any other participant that the Court deems necessary at the Remote Point or the Court Point can be seen and heard clearly and can see and hear the Court. Click Here To Download Rules[Read Rules] Next Story